Males are equally responsible for infertility as females since male partners can have Oligozoospermia (low sperm count). Other conditions are also considered but low sperm count is the most common cause. Different factors are associated with these aberrant conditions however, genetics factors, abnormal hormone levels, anti-sperm antibodies, infections of the reproductive system, lifestyle habits and choices like alcohol consumption, smoking and illegal drugs, trauma, infection, surgery in the pelvic area, inflammation, vasectomy, a cyst, cystic fibrosis gene mutation that can cause the abnormal development of the vas deferens all come into focus. If proper diagnosis is implemented including physical examination and medical history. In addition, semen analysis is paramount to evaluate concentration of sperm and its motility. Other factors to be considered are the following; A blood test for the level of testosterone and other hormones is also important. Post-ejaculation urinalysis, Genetic tests, Testicular biopsy are important in cases of Azoospermia. Also, if life style modifications have been initiated such as sexual intercourse every day or every other day in a fertile window, will increase chances of conception. To avoid the use of lubricants such as K-Y jelly and the like that might impair sperm movement and function. Eating healthy foods and maintaining a healthy weight along with adequate sleep and exercise. Little use of alcohol, no illicit drugs and to quit smoking. Supplements like Coenzyme Q10, Folic acid and zinc combination, L-carnitine, Selenium, Vitamin C, Vitamin E can help. The treatment protocols that could ensue are the following; Surgery-For instance, a varicocele can frequently be surgically fixed, and a blocked vas deferens can usually be fixed. An earlier vasectomy can be reversed. Sperm can frequently be extracted straight from the testicles or epididymis using sperm retrieval procedures in situations where there are no sperm in the ejaculate. Infection- An infection of the reproductive tract may be treated with antibiotics. Issues with sexual intercourse- In cases of erectile dysfunction or early ejaculation, medication or counseling can assist enhance fertility. Medications and hormonal therapies-Circumstances involving high or low hormones may require intervention with a practitioner to advise hormone replacement and the like.
Assisted reproduction techniques (ART)- Depending on the specific situation and preferences, ART treatments may involve obtaining sperm by normal ejaculation, or surgical extraction. The sperm are subsequently used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection, in vitro fertilization, or insertion into the female vaginal canal.